Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement. The ingredients of honey have been reported to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, and antimetastatic effects. Many evidences suggest the use of honey in the control and treatment of wounds, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma, and also cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal diseases. Honey has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of disease by phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and polyphenols, which act as antioxidants, are two main bioactive molecules present in honey. According to modern scientific literature, honey may be useful and has protective effects for the treatment of various disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems, even it is useful in cancer treatment because many types of antioxidant are present in honey. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of disease conditions. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended.
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Honey may provide better than usual care for easing upper respiratory tract symptoms, especially coughs, researchers have said.
The substance is cheap, readily available, and has virtually no side-effects.
Doctors can recommend it as a suitable alternative to antibiotics, which are often prescribed for such infections, even though they are not suitable, scientists from the University of Oxford said.
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) affect the nose, throat, voice box and the large air passages (bronchi) that lead from the windpipe to the lungs.
Symptoms can include sore throat, blocked nose, cough, and congestion.
There is evidence for honey being used in children, and it has long been used as a home remedy to treat coughs and colds.
But the evidence for its effectiveness for a range of upper respiratory tract symptoms in adults has not been systematically reviewed.
To address this, the scientists looked at research databases for relevant studies comparing honey and preparations that included it as an ingredient with usual care - mostly antihistamines, expectorants, cough suppressants, and painkillers.
They found 14 suitable clinical trials, involving 1,761 participants of varying ages.
Data analysis of these studies indicated that honey was more effective than usual care for improving symptoms, especially the frequency and severity of coughing.
Two of the studies showed symptoms lasted one to two days less among those treated with honey.
However, the researchers, Hibatullah Abuelgasim, of the Oxford University Medical School, and Charlotte Albury and Joseph Lee, of the Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, noted that honey is a complex substance and not a uniform product.
They also pointed out that only two of the studies involved a placebo, saying more of these studies need to be done before definitive conclusions can be reached.
Writing in the journal BMJ Evidence Based Medicine, the authors said: "Upper respiratory tract infections are the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescription.
"Since the majority of URTIs are viral, antibiotic prescription is both ineffective and inappropriate."
The researchers suggest honey might therefore provide an alternative when doctors want to prescribe something to safely treat upper respiratory tract symptoms.
They concluded: "Honey is a frequently used lay remedy that is well known to patients. It is also cheap, easy to access, and has limited harms.
"When clinicians wish to prescribe for URTI, we would recommend honey as an alternative to antibiotics.
"Honey is more effective and less harmful than usual care alternatives and avoids causing harm through antimicrobial resistance."
Honey facts ? Honey is 80% sugars and 20% water. ? To make one pound of honey, the bees in the colony must visit two million flowers, fly over 55,000 miles and will be the lifetime work of approximately 768 bees.
? A single honeybee will only produce approximately one twelfth of a teaspoon of honey in her lifetime.
? A single honey bee will visit 50-100 flowers on a single trip out of the hive.
? Honey is the only food that includes all the substances necessary to sustain life, including water.
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"Breath easy with the health benefits of honey." Express and Star [Wolverhampton, England], 29 Aug. 2020, p. 29. Gale OneFile: News, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A634305075/STND?u=uphoenix&sid=ebsco&xid=10fb4b9e. Accessed 23 Feb. 2022.
Alarm bells are sounding globally over the disappearance of pollinators, but the Dutch capital has proved to be a success story.
by Linda Givetash / Sep.07.2018 / 3:49 AM ET / Updated 3:54 AM ET NBC News
AMSTERDAM — An unkempt stretch of tall grass, wildflowers and weeds in front of a train station doesn't look like much — but it may be crucial to solving one of the world's biggest environmental puzzles.
While scientists around the globe have been sounding alarm bells over the decline of bees and pollinators crucial to the growth of crops, the diversity of wild bee and honeybee species in the Dutch capital has increased by 45 percent since 2000. The city of 2.3 million people attributes the success to creating bee-friendly environments like the overgrown, sunburnt patch of shrubs that commuters pass by daily.
The installation of “insect hotels" and a ban on the use of chemical pesticides on public land also appear to have played a role. "Insects are very important because they’re the start of the food chain," said Geert Timmermans, one of eight ecologists working for the city. "When it goes well with the insects, it also goes well with the birds and mammals."
The decline of bees and pollinators has been a growing concern around the planet. A study by the University of Vermont found that the wild bee population in the United States declined by 23 percent from 2008 and 2013. The most worrisome shortfall occurred in key agricultural regions, including California, the Pacific Northwest and the Mississippi River valley, that depend on pollinators.
Amsterdam's municipal government has made significant investments, including creating a $38.5 million sustainability fund,in improving the environment — not only for bees but the entire ecosystem. It also set a goal four years ago to convert half of all public green spaces to native plants — like outside the Sloterdijk train station. “Our strategy is to when we design a park, we use native species but also the species that give a lot of flowering and fruit for (bees),” Timmermans said.
Residents and businesses are provided with information on how to avoid using pesticides with alternative treatments for private land. “(Citizens) acknowledge the importance of the natural environment. It's part of the culture,” he said.
The city also employs what Timmermans calls a “nature-inclusive” ideology in its design plans. Developers are also encouraged to install green roofs on new buildings, which help control the climate within the structure, reducing reliance on heating and cooling systems, and also create a better habitat for wildlife.Subsidies are available through the city for residents and owners looking to retrofit existing roofs or exterior walls.
Zoku, a hotel catering to business travelers and remote workers, designed a rooftop garden and dining area with the idea of bringing the outdoors in for people tied to their laptops. With funding from the city covering 46 percent of the project's cost, it retrofitted the roof of the six-story building to include a diverse range of plant life from moss — typically used on green roofs — to vegetables and endangered shrubs. Hotel guests and the public are welcome to lounge in hammocks or sit indoors by large windows overlooking both the rooftop greenery and city.
“People will stay here hugging a pillow and say I don’t want to leave, I don’t want to go into town,” said Veerle Donders, Zoku's brand and concept manager. “They say it’s really nice to see the sunset and ease their mind from city life.” It’s not only a scenic escape for visitors, but the space is a feeding ground and home for bees that cluster around flower beds or in “insect hotels” — small wooden structures with holes drilled through them to encourage bees and other bugs to nest — that hang on a few exterior walls. Roofs aren’t the only spaces in the city becoming more green.
Residents can also request to have a 16-inch strip of pavement immediately against their home at the ground level removed in order to plant shrubs, flowers or climbing vines, Timmermans said. A city ecologist can even offer consultation on what plants would most likely thrive in their neighborhood. From the street, fist-sized holes can be seen drilled into the exterior walls of some buildings. Timmermans said they serve as nesting space for swifts, bats and other birds.
While these efforts appear to be having a positive effect on wildlife, it’s unclear exactly how much damage urban development had on the bees and pollinators in Amsterdam before records were kept. Timmermans said an initial survey was conducted in 2000 to establish a baseline for future research, and whether a significant loss in bee species occurred before that is unknown. However, a 2015 survey of pollinators found 21 bee species not previously documented in the city.
The dwindling bee population has been noted in the Netherlands since the 1950s. David Kleijn, an ecology professor at Wageningen University, said the biggest factor contributing to the decline of bees globally is loss of habitat. Urbanization and the expansion of agriculture is leaving bees without native plants to consume and space to build hives or burrow.
The Dutch government introduced a pollinator strategy this year to revive bees, butterflies and other insects that are crucial to the cultivation of more than 75 percent of the country’s food crop. Planting one type or even a select variety of flowers or trees isn’t a silver-bullet solution. Kleijn said individual species of bees rely on select species of plants, and studies have shown that the disappearance of certain plants is correlated with the loss of bees. While bee populations are improving in Amsterdam, concern remains high for the more than 300 species across the country. Sixty-six percent of all bee species in the country are on the red list, classifying them as endangered.
Deborah Post founded Honey Highway so she could do her part to help save the bees. Post lives about 40 miles southwest of Amsterdam in a rural community. When the honey bees in her apiary began dying off, she began to research the cause. “Bees and insects have no food because everything is green, everything is grass,” she said of her property surrounded by dairy farms.
Post said the Dutch government identified a decline in beekeeping, the use of pesticides and fertilizers, invasive pests, and a shortage of food and habitat as contributors to the decline of bees. “Three problems of the four problems, I cannot do anything about it. But the fourth, not enough flowers, I can personally sow wildflowers. It’s simple,” she said.
With a new highway being built in the area in 2015, she pitched to government and developers to allow her to sow wildflowers along the sides of the road that would typically be left with only gravel or grass. The experiment was a success. The bees living in 11 hives on her family’s property are thriving, she said, as are the wildflowers despite an unusually hot and dry summer.
Building on the experience, Post expanded Honey Highway, sowing flowers along other major routes and also along dikes and railways. The flowers she uses are all native to Holland and chosen based on what is most likely to thrive in a given area. She’s involved schoolchildren to help with the sowing process so the next generation can also learn about the ecosystem around bees. Long term, Post said she wants to see more routes in the country covered, and hopes she can expand internationally as well.
By Leah Asmelash and Katherine Dillinger, CNN
Updated 12:55 PM ET, Mon July 8, 2019
From October 1 to April 1, an estimated 37.7% of US managed honeybee colonies -- colonies that are not wild -- were lost. The number is up 7 percentage points from last winter's count and is the highest level reported since Bee Informed began the survey in 2006. In the survey, beekeepers also said that a 22% loss would be acceptable, but even that number has increased from previous years."This increased acceptable loss may indicate that beekeepers are more realistic or pragmatic in their expectations of colony losses," the survey said.
Because surviving the winter months is an indicator of the health of the bee colony, an increase in winter loss means bee colonies could be weakening overall. The survey also reported that the United States lost 40.7% of managed honeybee colonies in the past year, almost 3 percentage points higher than the average annual rate of loss reported by beekeepers since 2010.The news comes after a US Department of Agriculture announcement that it will no longer collect data on bee colonies. The USDA has been collecting data on honeybee numbers and colony losses since 2015 but will no longer be able to do so after funding cuts from the federal government. The move, though temporary, further pushed back a focus on bee conservation promoted by former President Barack Obama, and it is at least the third bee-related dataset suspended under President Donald Trump.
The increase in bee colony loss during the winter is another sign of increasing bee deaths and disappearances, leading to what some call a bee crisis and putting food security at risk. Most plants rely on pollinators, like bees, to reproduce. So if the bees disappear, it doesn't only affect honey; many crops that humans rely on could start disappearing, too. The USDA notes that pollinators, most often honeybees, are responsible for 1 in every 3 bites of food we eat. They also increase the nation's crop values each year by over $15 billion.It's hard to say why bees are dying, but some probable causes are pesticides, parasites or climate change. Scientists and nonprofits have taken steps to understand and mitigate the crisis, including studying honeybees in Africa, where commercialized beekeeping has not been as intrusive.
You wanna know why my sting hurts?
Besides water in my venom there is 50% MELITTIN, which causes the ouch!
12% is PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which destroys cell membranes and causes inflammation and pain.
9% is HISTAMINE which causes red itchy spots.
3% is APAMIN that destroys nerve tissue……….
And 2% is HYAULURONIDASE which helps it all to spread.
Makes you want to treat me with more respect, doesn’t it?!
The good side is if you’ve got arthritis, my venom will relieve the pain and loosen the tight joints.
So, don’t pinch, swat, flail your hands and arms around me, so I won’t feel threatened and be forced to defend myself by stinging you! I’m only checking you out. Oh! And by the way, that buzzing you are hearing as I am checking you out, it isn’t that I am getting ready to sting you. It is only my 4 wings flapping @ 200 times per second to keep me in flight as I haul back food and water to my sisters and mother (queen) back home in our hive at Monkey’s Pocket Apiary!
If you want to read the more scientific version of this information, check out this website:
HONEY IS INCREDIBLY USEFUL in home
remedies for cold and flu season.
It’s soothing, nutritious, has healing
properties, and, of course, is sweet.
In late fall you can find me preparing our winter
supply of cough syrups, oxymels, fermented garlic,
and other home remedies for cold and flu season. I use
a lot of honey on that day but it’s completely worth it.
When making remedies it’s important to use raw
honey. Raw honey is honey that is not heated or
pasteurized. Heating honey destroys the enzymes and
nutrients which leaves you with nothing more than
just a sweetener. If you don’t keep your own bees,
call your local county extension
office to get the name of a local
beekeeper so you can purchase
HOME REMEDIES FOR
COLD AND FLU SEASON
One of our favorite ways to soothe
a sore throat and calm a cough is to
take a spoonful of honey and slowly
eat it. It’s quick, convenient, and
it works. But sometimes, we need
more than plain honey.
JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 71
If you can make tea, you can
make homemade cough syrup.
There are a variety of herbs that can
be used in cough syrup, I usually
use sage or thyme. To make the
cough syrup, simmer two cups of
distilled water with half an ounce
of dried thyme leaves or one ounce
of fresh thyme leaves added to it.
Simmer until it’s reduced by half.
Slice an organic lemon and put it in
a wide mouth pint mason jar – peel,
seeds, and all. Once the liquid is
reduced, strain out the thyme and
pour the liquid into the jar with the
lemon. Fill the remainder of the jar
with honey. Put the lid on and give
it shake. Label and date the jar.
The syrup can be used
immediately but will have more
flavor and healing properties
after a few days once the lemons
have macerated. This can be
stored in the refrigerator for up
to three months or the freezer for
a year. Take a teaspoon of syrup
as needed to calm a cough.
Tap water can be used but the
syrup will not last as long as
when you use distilled water.
Oxymels aren’t super common
today but they’ve been around
since ancient times. Oxymels are
made by combining honey, apple
cider vinegar, and herbs. Oxymels
usually only have one or two
herbs in them, but a fire cider
recipe has many herbs added.
The idea behind oxymels is
that the honey and apple cider
vinegar will mask the strong
flavors of the herbs and make
them more palatable. Herbs that
do well in an oxymel are strong
herbs that you wouldn’t really
want to drink as tea; such as
sage, thyme, horseradish, garlic,
rosemary, basil, and mullein.
To make an oxymel, fill a quart
size mason with one ounce of dried
herbs, one cup of honey, and two
cups of apple cider vinegar. Put the
lid on and give it a shake. Plastic
lids work best for this recipe as
the acid in the vinegar can cause
metal lids to rust. Label and date
the jar. Let the oxymel sit for two
weeks, occasionally shaking it.
After two weeks, strain the
herbs out. Your oxymel is now
ready to use. An oxymel is shelf
stable as the honey and vinegar are
both preservatives but it can also
be stored in the refrigerator.
My favorite way to use oxymel is
to add a tablespoon to my morning
warm lemon water.
I also like to make a small jar
of fermented garlic every year.
When someone is really sick, I’ll
crush up a clove of garlic and add
the garlic plus some of the honey to
a cup of hot lemon water to sip on.
It also makes a really great spread
for crackers or bread.
To make fermented garlic, peel
two heads of garlic and put them
in a small mason jar. Pour honey
When making remedies it’s important to use
raw honey. Raw honey is honey that is not
heated or pasteurized. Heating honey destroys
the enzymes and nutrients which leaves you
with nothing more than just a sweetener.
*Do not give honey
to children under one year
old because their digestive
system isn’t fully developed.
There is a very rare risk
of honey containing a strain of
botulism that those older than
one can fight off but babies
cannot. Even though
it’s rare, it’s not worth
72 || COUNTRYSIDE & SMALL STOCK JOURNAL
over them and put a loose lid on
them. Set them on your counter
for a few days. You should notice
some bubbles and that the honey
is thinner. Be sure to put a saucer
under the jar since the honey
might spill over a bit in the
After about four days, move the
fermented garlic to the refrigerator
to slow the fermentation process
down. It will be good for about a
year in the refrigerator. Don’t forget
to label and date the jar.
HONEY HEALTH BENEFITS
There are many viewpoints in the
is honey better than sugar debate.
From an environmental viewpoint,
I would emphatically say “Yes,
honey is better than sugar.”
However, from a nutritional
viewpoint, the research suggests
that our bodies handle all forms
of sugar the same way, and
one of those ways is that sugar
lowers our immune response.
There are those who would say
to stay away from all forms of
sugar when you’re sick since you
don’t want anything lowering your
immune response — this would
include fruit. However, I disagree.
During a sickness, I need to
weigh the risk of having our
immune response lowered against
the benefit of getting the herbs into
our bodies. The reality is, without
some form of sweetener, no one in
my family is going to drink thyme
tea, take lemon sage water, or eat
straight garlic cloves. The only
way they will take these things is
if there is something to make
And honey is what we chose
to use unless it’s for a child under
one year old and then we use
maple syrup as the sweetener.
Raw honey also has many
enzymes and nutrients that sugar
just doesn’t have. Of course, you
would have to eat an unhealthy
amount of honey to get full the
full benefits of those nutrients but
when given a choice between using
something that has nutrients and
something completely void of them,
I’ll choose the nutrients every time.
One of the interesting properties
of honey is that it has antibacterial
properties. Honey’s antibacterial
properties are well documented and
honey has been used topically for
centuries. All raw, unpasteurized
honey has antibacterial properties
and is often used topically to treat
wounds in people and in animals.
Of course, colds and the flu
aren’t caused by bacteria but by
viruses, however, there are many
secondary bacterial infections that
can happen from being congested
and run down. I believe choosing
honey over other sweeteners gives
our bodies just a bit of extra help
on warding off those secondary
This year, try using honey for
cold and flu season in a new way.
Maybe that means you need to
find a local beekeeper to get raw
honey. Maybe you’ll keep a jar
in the back of the pantry to take
by the spoonful to soothe a sore
throat instead of using a storebought
cough syrup. And maybe,
that means you’ll try one of the
quick remedies our family keeps
Environ Int. 2016 Mar;88:169-178. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.011. Epub 2016 Jan 4.
Widespread contamination of wildflower and bee-collected pollen with complex mixtures of neonicotinoids and fungicides commonly applied to crops.
Ajibola, A. (2015). Novel insights into the health importance of natural honey. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 22(5), 7-22.
Cough is one of the most common problems associated with seasonal viruses. Current research shows that honey is effective in decreasing coughs in children between the ages of one and eighteen (Barker, 2016). Researchers also found that eating local honey also suppresses the growth of bacteria and viruses, and decreases inflammation!
Barker, S. J. (2016). Honey for acute cough in children. Paediatrics & Child Health, 21(4), 199.
Researchers report that raw honey has anti-allergy, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, tumor inhibiting and brain cell protecting properties. Around the world, honey is used to manage coughs and allergies, heal wounds, manage reflux and other GI symptoms, and much more!
Pasupuleti, V. R., Sammugam, L., Ramesh, N., & Gan, S. H. (2017). Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: A comprehensive review of their biological actions and health benefits. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017 doi:10.1155/2017/1259510
The 60,000 or so bees in a beehive visit more than two million flowers to gather enough nectar to make just a pound of honey! By gathering the pollen and nectar from these local plants, bees create honey with local allergy-fighting properties. Raw local honey made by bees in the vicinity of the allergenic plant will contain tiny amounts of pollen from that plant. This honey will act as a sort of vaccine if taken in small amounts--a few teaspoons per day--for several months, and can provide relief from seasonal pollen-related allergies.